International Journal of School Health

Published by: Kowsar

The Effect of Ventilation by Window Opening on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression of Female High School Students

Najmeh Najafi ORCID 1 , Khosro Movahed 1 , * , Zahra Barzegar 1 and Siamak Samani 2
Authors Information
1 Department of Architecture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of School Health: April 30, 2019, 6 (2); e87038
  • Published Online: April 8, 2019
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: December 3, 2018
  • Revised: February 8, 2019
  • Accepted: February 14, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/intjsh.87038

How to Cite: Najafi N, Movahed K, Barzegar Z, Samani S. The Effect of Ventilation by Window Opening on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression of Female High School Students, Int J School Health. 2019 ; 6(2):e87038. doi: 10.5812/intjsh.87038.

Copyright © 2019, International Journal of School Health. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Nelson B, McGorry PD, Wichers M, Wigman JTW, Hartmann JA. Moving from static to dynamic models of the onset of mental disorder: A review. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74(5):528-34. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0001. [PubMed: 28355471].
  • 2. Deb S, Strodl E, Sun J. Academic stress, parental pressure, anxiety and mental health among Indian high school students. Int J Psychol Behav Sci. 2015;5(1):26-34. doi: 10.5923/j.ijpbs.20150501.04.
  • 3. Dupéré V, Leventhal T, Dion E, Crosnoe R, Archambault I, Janosz M. Stressors and turning points in high school and dropout: A stress process, life course framework. Rev Educ Res. 2015;85(4):591-629. doi: 10.3102/0034654314559845.
  • 4. Oberle E, Schonert-Reichl KA. Stress contagion in the classroom? The link between classroom teacher burnout and morning cortisol in elementary school students. Soc Sci Med. 2016;159:30-7. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.04.031. [PubMed: 27156042].
  • 5. Li D, Sullivan WC. Impact of views to school landscapes on recovery from stress and mental fatigue. Landscape Urban Plan. 2016;148:149-58. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.12.015.
  • 6. Gaillard AW. Concentration, stress and performance. In: Szalma JL, Hancock PAA, editors. Performance under stress. CRC Press; 2017. p. 75-92.
  • 7. World Health Organization. Depression and other common mental disorders: Global health estimates. 2017.
  • 8. Doom JR, Haeffel GJ. Teasing apart the effects of cognition, stress, and depression on health. Am J Health Behav. 2013;37(5):610-9. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.37.5.4. [PubMed: 23985283]. [PubMed Central: PMC5860662].
  • 9. Evans GW. Environmental stress. United States of America: CUP Archive; 1984.
  • 10. Gifford R. Environmental psychology: Principles and practice. Colville, WA: Optimal books; 2007.
  • 11. Firdaus G. Built environment and health outcomes: Identification of contextual risk factors for mental well-being of older adults. Age Int. 2016;42(1):62-77. doi: 10.1007/s12126-016-9276-0.
  • 12. Najafi N, Movahed K, Barzegar Z, Samani S. The effect of thermal comfort on stress in female high school students. Int J School Health. 2018;5(3). doi: 10.5812/intjsh.67539.
  • 13. Najafi N, Movahed K, Barzegar Z, Samani S. Environmental factors affecting students’ stress in the educational environment: A case study of shiraz schools. Int J School Health. 2018;5(2). doi: 10.5812/intjsh.67153.
  • 14. Najafi N, Keshmiri H. The relationship between classroom indoor plants and happiness of female high school students. Int J School Health. 2019;6(1). doi: 10.5812/intjsh.82072.
  • 15. Mendell MJ, Heath GA. Do indoor pollutants and thermal conditions in schools influence student performance? A critical review of the literature. Indoor Air J. 2005;15:27-32.
  • 16. Coccolo S, Kämpf J, Scartezzini JL, Pearlmutter D. Outdoor human comfort and thermal stress: A comprehensive review on models and standards. Urban Climate. 2016;18:33-57. doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2016.08.004.
  • 17. Fanger PO. Thermal comfort. Analysis and applications in environmental engineering. Copenhagen: Danish Technical Press; 1970.
  • 18. Zomorodian ZS, Tahsildoost M, Hafezi M. Thermal comfort in educational buildings: A review article. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016;59:895-906. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.01.033.
  • 19. Jardim MHDAG, da Silva Junior GB, Silva RB, Alves MLSD, Branco JGDO, Dos Santos PDS. A systematic review of depression in university students. Int J Sci Res. 2018;6(12).
  • 20. Rijal HB, Humphreys MA, Nicol JF. Development of a window opening algorithm based on adaptive thermal comfort to predict occupant behavior in Japanese dwellings. Japan Architect Rev. 2018;1(3):310-21. doi: 10.1002/2475-8876.12043.
  • 21. Zhou X, Ouyang Q, Zhu Y, Feng C, Zhang X. Experimental study of the influence of anticipated control on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Indoor Air. 2014;24(2):171-7. doi: 10.1111/ina.12067. [PubMed: 23980928].
  • 22. Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the Beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33(3):335-43. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U. [PubMed: 7726811].
  • 23. Samani S, Joukar B. [A study on the reliability and validity of the short form of the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS-21)]. J Soc Sci Hum Shiraz Univ. 2007;26(3):65-77. Persian.
  • 24. Asghari A, Saed F, Dibajnia P. Psychometric properties of the depression anxiety stress scales-21 (DASS-21) in a non-clinical Iranian sample. Int J Psychol. 2008;2(2):82-102.
  • 25. Chatzidiakou L, Mumovic D, Summerfield A. Is CO2 a good proxy for indoor air quality in classrooms? Part 1: The interrelationships between thermal conditions, CO2 levels, ventilation rates and selected indoor pollutants. Build Serv Eng Res Technol. 2015;36(2):129-61. doi: 10.1177/0143624414566244.
  • 26. Moloney C. Workplace productivity and LEED building. 2012.
  • 27. Fiedler N, Laumbach R, Kelly-McNeil K, Lioy P, Fan ZH, Zhang J, et al. Health effects of a mixture of indoor air volatile organics, their ozone oxidation products, and stress. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(11):1542-8. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8132. [PubMed: 16263509]. [PubMed Central: PMC1310916].
  • 28. Cooper CL, Davies R, Tung RL. Interpreting stress: Sources of job stress among conference interpreters. J Cross Cult Interlang Commun. 1982;1(2):97-108. doi: 10.1515/mult.1982.1.2.97.
  • 29. Letz GA. Sick building syndrome: Acute illness among office workers-the role of building ventilation, airborne contaminants and work stress. Allergy Asthma Proceed. 1990;11(3):109.
  • 30. Lan L, Wargocki P, Wyon DP, Lian Z. Effects of thermal discomfort in an office on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms, physiological responses, and human performance. Indoor Air. 2011;21(5):376-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2011.00714.x. [PubMed: 21306437].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments