International Journal of School Health

Published by: Kowsar

A Study of the Male High School Male Students’ Knowledge and Attitude to Addiction in Urmia, Iran, 2013

Nader Aghakhani 1 , Ali Eftekhari 2 , Abbas Zarei 2 , Yaser Moradi 1 and Camellia Torabizadeh 3 , *
Authors Information
1 Patient Safety Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran
2 Legal Medicine Organization of Urmia, Urmia, IR Iran
3 Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
Article information
  • International Journal of School Health: January 2015, 2 (1); e60204
  • Published Online: January 28, 2015
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: September 20, 2014
  • Accepted: December 17, 2014
  • DOI: 10.17795/intjsh-23772

To Cite: Aghakhani N, Eftekhari A, Zarei A, Moradi Y, Torabizadeh C. A Study of the Male High School Male Students’ Knowledge and Attitude to Addiction in Urmia, Iran, 2013, Int J School Health. 2015 ; 2(1):e60204. doi: 10.17795/intjsh-23772.

Copyright © 2015, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Singer M. Drugs and development: the global impact of drug use and trafficking on social and economic development. Int J Drug Policy. 2008; 19(6): 467-78[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Strasburger VC, American Academy of Pediatrics. Council on C. Policy statement--children, adolescents, substance abuse, and the media. Pediatrics. 2010; 126(4): 791-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Alam A. [Addiction, a crime or a disease?]. Barge Sabz. 2000; 36(37)
  • 4. Hannesdottir H, Tyrfingsson T, Piha J. Psychosocial functioning and psychiatric comorbidity among substance-abusing Icelandic adolescents. Nord J Psychiatry. 2001; 55(1): 43-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Ahmadvand MA. [Addiction, etiology and its treatment]. 2008;
  • 6. Deborah AO. Psychiatric Nursing Biological and Behavioral Concepts. 1995; : 345
  • 7. General statistics bureau and Addiction Control Headquarters. 2008;
  • 8. Mohammadi N. [Family health nursing]. 2004;
  • 9. Friedmann PD, Saitz R, Samet JH. Management of adults recovering from alcohol or other drug problems: relapse prevention in primary care. JAMA. 1998; 279(15): 1227-31[PubMed]
  • 10. Kloos A, Weller RA, Chan R, Weller EB. Gender differences in adolescent substance abuse. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2009; 11(2): 120-6[PubMed]
  • 11. Rozi S, Butt ZA, Akhtar S. Correlates of cigarette smoking among male college students in Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health. 2007; 7: 312[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Babaie Asl F. [Evaluation of knowledge of high school students about drugs in Kerman]. Sci J Hamdan Univ Med Sci. 2008; 16(1): 18-24
  • 13. Jabbari Beyrami H, Bakhshian F, Vahidi R, Mohammadpour Asl A. [Attitudes and high risk behaviors of secondary school students in Tabriz toward drugs abuse]. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol. 2008; 14(3): 350-4
  • 14. Raoofi M. [Demographic Characteristics of addicta refered to Welfare Organization in Kermanshah]. 1998;
  • 15. Jazayeri A, Rafiee H, Nazari MA. Attitudes Of middle school students about Addiction in Tehran. J Soc Welf. 2002; 2(7): 127-229
  • 16. Kakihara F, Tilton-Weaver L, Kerr M, Stattin H. The relationship of parental control to youth adjustment: do youths' feelings about their parents play a role? J Youth Adolesc. 2010; 39(12): 1442-56[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Mansoori B, Acamovic T. Real dry matter and nitrogen digestibility: further correction of true dry matter and nitrogen digestibility of proteins in tube fed birds, using uric acid-corrected nitrogen values. Br Poult Sci. 1998; 39 Suppl-6[PubMed]
  • 18. Bond L, Butler H, Thomas L, Carlin J, Glover S, Bowes G, et al. Social and school connectedness in early secondary school as predictors of late teenage substance use, mental health, and academic outcomes. J Adolesc Health. 2007; 40(4): 357 e9-18[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Azami A, Mohammadi M, Masoumi R. [Tendency to narcotics among people over ten years of age in Ardabil Province, 2002]. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 2005; 5(1): 16-21
  • 20. Moosanezhad A. [Effects of social factors on tendency of male adolescent and teenager in prison to Addiction in Isfahan]. 1999;
  • 21. Changali M. Addiction in children. Zharfaye Taribiat. 2001; : 28
  • 22. Keijsers L, Branje SJ, VanderValk IE, Meeus W. Reciprocal Effects Between Parental Solicitation, Parental Control, Adolescent Disclosure, and Adolescent Delinquency. J Res Adolescence. 2010; 20(1): 88-113[DOI]
  • 23. Kodjo CM, Klein JD. Prevention and risk of adolescent substance abuse. The role of adolescents, families, and communities. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2002; 49(2): 257-68[PubMed]
  • 24. Fuller-Thomson E, Filippelli J, Lue-Crisostomo CA. Gender-specific association between childhood adversities and smoking in adulthood: findings from a population-based study. Public Health. 2013; 127(5): 449-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Finn KV, Willert HJ. Alcohol and Drugs in Schools: Teachers' Reactions to the Problem. Phi Delta Kappan. 2006; 88(1): 37-40[DOI]
  • 26. Horton EG. Racial differences in the effects of age of onset on alcohol consumption and development of alcohol-related problems among males from mid-adolescence to young adulthood. J Ethn Subst Abuse. 2007; 6(1): 1-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Challier B, Chau N, Predine R, Choquet M, Legras B. Associations of family environment and individual factors with tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use in adolescents. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000; 16(1): 33-42[PubMed]
  • 28. Taeremian F, Mehryar AH. [Effectiveness of life skills training program in prevention of drug use among secondary school students]. J Zanjan Univ Med Sci. 2009; 16(65): 77-88
  • 29. Borujeni Masudi D, Baghiani Moghadam MH, Sharifirad GH, Fallahzadeh H. [Prevention of drug and substance abuse behaviors based on the health belief model in boys' high school Borujen]. J Health Syst Res. 2012; 8(2): 237
  • 30. Riggio RE, Zimmerman J. Advances in personal relationships. 1991; : 133-55
  • 31. Clark DB, Cornelius J. Childhood psychopathology and adolescent cigarette smoking: a prospective survival analysis in children at high risk for substance use disorders. Addict Behav. 2004; 29(4): 837-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Kliewer W, Murrelle L. Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use: findings from a study in selected Central American countries. J Adolesc Health. 2007; 40(5): 448-55[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Goldstein SE, Davis-Kean PE, Eccles JS. Parents, peers, and problem behavior: a longitudinal investigation of the impact of relationship perceptions and characteristics on the development of adolescent problem behavior. Dev Psychol. 2005; 41(2): 401-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Botvin GJ, Griffin KW. School-based programmes to prevent alcohol, tobacco and other drug use. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2007; 19(6): 607-15[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Bobrova N, Alcorn R, Rhodes T, Rughnikov I, Neifeld E, Power R. Injection drug users' perceptions of drug treatment services and attitudes toward substitution therapy: a qualitative study in three Russian cities. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2007; 33(4): 373-8[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments