At the end of childhood, individual enters a phase of life quite different in terms of the previous period. This period is known as “adolescence” (
1). Most psychologists are of the opinion that the distinction between adolescence and other developmental periods is because adolescent or the yesterday’s child is still not ready for facing with a difficult life. Hence, adjustment would be a difficult task for him, and will further make problems for him ( 2).
Psychological resilience is defined as an individual’s ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity (
3). Resilience is not running away from problems but to deal with them, the ability to pass through problems, cope with stress, and enjoy life. Resilience refers to the capacity to return to good mental health after challenging and difficult situations. Some researchers define it as the return to normal (or better than normal) functioning after exposure to a high-risk experience or environment. Resilience allows individuals to manage difficult episodes or chronic challenges in their lives ( 4).
Related to resiliency some psychologists believe that: It is the style of thinking (more than heredity, intelligence and any other single factor) that determines people’s ability in the face of difficulties and stressful situations. Therefore, interventions that aim to impress thought processes, knowledge, the abilities and features of the individual can be an important step in the development of skills and abilities related to resilience (
Different approaches and theories can be used to help people improve their self-understanding, among which is the “transactional analysis”. Environment and social relations are of great importance in transactional analysis (TA), however, it is the individuals who are ultimately responsible their life and behavior. One must accept his/her responsibility and consider his/her own role in life more than anything else. Transactional analysis pays a special attention to individual’s inner problems and relationships besides interpersonal relations. TA suggests that if individuals have healthy, sincere and honest relationships with each other as alternatives to destructive, negative and degrading relationships, they would be able to reduce their and others’ stress and enjoy their life (
TA was a powerful driving force for the exchange of inter-personal views. The future of transactional analysis is embedded in the combination with other psychotherapy systems. Redecision approach binds transactional analysis with Gestalt therapy (
Redecision therapy which was developed by Goulding in 1970 is a compilation of Eric Berne’s transactional analysis and Perlz Gestalt therapy (
8, 9). According to transactional analysis approach, child in reaction to parental orders, including verbal and nonverbal messages shows emotional responses and then makes decisions (e.g. I’m not good enough, I’m not worth being loved, I cannot do that, etc.) and carry the decisions made with himself into adulthood ( 10). This approach helps individuals be able to write a new story about their life. Re-decision-making approach is effective for the treatment of individuals living with negative parental messages ( 7). The assumption of this process is that under stressful circumstances, individuals re-experience familiar ways of seeing the world and re-practice the patterns parallel with their past decisions ( 11).
The therapist in the therapy process wants the client to go back to the original scene related to his/her current problem, and speak of the emotions, behaviors and relationships he/she had at the time. Gestalt techniques are applied to express the emotional issues that were not resolved earlier (
12). First, the clients would be asked to give examples of their problem. Then, they are asked to explain the feelings they experience and express them in their own words. Afterwards, the clients are asked to explain the circumstances similar to those they had in their childhood. After the initial contact was made with the stage show, Gestalt techniques are applied to express the emotional issues that were not resolved at first ( 11). According to this approach, if individuals cannot express their emotions like old resentments, frustrations, sorrows,even feelings of guilt and love that were not expressed, can prevent their further growth and development ( 12). So, Redecision therapy, is not the end but a beginning, so doing, the person starts to think, feel and behave in a new way ( 8).
According to an idea by Henderson (
13), students with low resilience keep the concept of “failure” rather than “success” and messages like: “I’m not lovable”, “I’m not lovely” in their self-concept. To help such students, a context is needed to provide them with new experiences and opportunities to discover themselves as important and lovely.